MHR711 – Chapter 9 Notes PDF

Title MHR711 – Chapter 9 Notes
Author Cece Li
Course Occupational Health and Safety
Institution Ryerson University
Pages 12
File Size 381.1 KB
File Type PDF
Total Downloads 996
Total Views 1,245

Summary

MHR711 – Chapter 9: TrainingThe Case of the Englishtown Ferry  On February 8th, 2003, Donald LeBlanc died on the job o The 38-year-old drowned when the tractor he was operating to clear snow and ice from the ramp to the small cable ferry in Englishtown, Nova Scotia, slid into St. Ann’s Bay o His bo...


Description

MHR711 – Chapter 9 Notes Occupational Health and Safety (Cmhr 711)

MHR711 – Chapter 9: Training The Case of the Englishtown Ferry  -

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On February 8th, 2003, Donald LeBlanc died on the job o The 38-year-old drowned when the tractor he was operating to clear snow and ice from the ramp to the small cable ferry in Englishtown, Nova Scotia, slid into St. Ann’s Bay o His body was not discovered until August 2003 The trainer had no provided any training on operating the tractor on the ramp itself or under poor weather conditions, having determined that such conditions were too dangerous for individuals who were learning this skill Mr. LeBlanc had struggled in the training, failing his first test and barely passing on a second attempt The circumstances surrounding this tragic incident illustrate the importance of OH&S training organizations o Failing to provide training or offering inadequate training content and evaluation can place workers in hazardous situations, with catastrophic results The tragedy at the Englishtown Ferry illustrates the disastrous event s that can unfold when appropriate health and safety training is NOT delivered in a workplace Workplace dangers are a reality for ALL workers

 Canadian Statistics -

A recent study of nearly 60,000 Canadian workers reported that only 12% of women and 16% of men had received workplace safety training in the previous year Though employees who were new to their jobs were more likely to receive training, the proportion who did remains disappointingly low, at 20 % Orientation or “on boarding” training? o How detailed o How effective o General or specific?

The Role of Occupational Health and Safety Training  -

All workers have several rights pertaining to their health and safety while at work Three basic rights apply to all Canadian employees: o 1. The Right to Know  Workers have a right to be informed about dangerous or unsafe materials and machinery in the workplace o 2. The Right to Participate  Workers have a right to take part actively in the protection of their own health and safety  This participation generally involves reporting unsafe work practices and conditions o 3. The Right to Refuse Unsafe Work  Workers have a right to without their services if they are asked to perform a task that they deem to be unsafe or are asked to use equipment that is not in good repair

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It is easy to see the vital role of training for the fulfillment of these three basic rights: o 1) Employees – especially new ones – must be advised of these rights  The communication of these basic rights can take place in a safety orientation when a person starts a new job o 2) Once employees are aware of their basic rights regarding health and safety at work, safetyrelated training is needed to help individuals ensure that these rights are being upheld 0 0

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Example: with respect to the right to know, employees must receive training on their workplace’s potential dangers Example: right to refuse unsafe work  effective health and safety training will help individuals judge accurately which tasks are indeed unsafe

The importance of health and safety training s recognized internationally as well o Example: in USA, training is prominently placed as one of five essential elements of OH&S, along with employer commitment, hazard surveillance, hazard control and prevetion, and program evaluation Important to know when organization should NOT use training as an OH&S intervention o Training interventions are helpful when they address knowledge or skills “needs” or gaps o If a skill or knowledge gap is NOT identified, training is likely not the appropriate intervention There are also cases where even though the employee may NOT have a certain skill set, training would still NOT be the best answer o Example: engineering interventions  focus on changing the physical environment to reduce hazard exposure and risk should be the first line of intervention and defence when it comes to worker safety  Engineering-based solutions before administrative or behavioural interventions Give the importance of effectively communicating health and safety information in today’s workplaces, the question of how to develop and implement effective health and safety training programs is vital

Health and Safety Training Programs  Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Model of Training: a general model of the training process that incorporates needs analysis, training design and delivery, and training evaluation and that notes the interdependencies among the three major components of the training process -

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The ISD Model of Training has three parts: o 1. Needs Analysis o 2. Training Design and Delivery o 3. Training Evaluation Interdependencies among the three major parts of the training process

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 Need Analysis -

The training and development process begins when a need or concern arises

Need Analysis: the initial stage of the training development process, intended to identify employee and organizational deficiencies that can be addressed with training and to recognize potential obstacles to the success of a training program -

Need Analysis the recommended starting point in many models of organizational training because: o (a) It helps determine the nature of the problems o (b) A way to determine whether there is a gap between current and desired reality o (c) Used to identify potential obstacles to the effectiveness of a training program so that they can be dealt with early in the training and development process o (d) Includes assessing the organization, the task or job at hand, and the employee(s) in question

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The inclusion of all three levels in the initial analysis will help answer questions about: o What groundwork must be done before training begins o What the content of the training program should be o Who should receive training o How the program should be delivered

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Three Steps of Needs Analysis: o (i) Organizational Analysis o (ii) Task Analysis o (iii) Person Analysis

(I)

Organizational Analysis

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A needs analysis at the organizational level should be the starting point in any training intervention

Organizational Analysis: an analysis of the entire organization designed to examine its resources, strategy, and environment in order to assess the organization’s support for training -

An organizational analysis should involve: o (a) A study of the whole organization and industry in which it operates o (b) Will identifying health and safety areas that need knowledge and skills improvement and may be targets for a training program o (c) Should highlight any constraints that may limit the success of a training program before training is designed and delivered o (d) It will establish organizational support for a training intervention

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Successful training initiatives tend to be in line with the organization’s overall strategy It is important to consider the resources the organization can dedicate to the training process, as the extent of the available resources can influence the nature of the training program o Example: if the organization has training facilities on-site, this may influence decisions about how the training is delivered  Budget should also be considered, financial constraints will influence decisions later in the training development process  Industry and environmental factors  if the organization is unionized, must consider the role of the union in training program development

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Should establish organizational support for a training intervention o Can be done by developing a relationship with management Support from the organization is vital to the success of any training program An organization that truly values training will provide the necessary resources to make the program a success and get behind the training efforts by encouraging employees to take part actively

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It is important that the individual conducting the organizational needs analysis determines not onlyt he degree of organizational support for training and learning, but also the support for health and safety initiative in general The effectiveness of any health and safety efforts “will be a function of the organization’s overall commitment to providing a safe work environment and the employee’s perception and recognition of that commitment” The extent of organizational support for OH&S training can be determined by examining the organization’s safety climate

Safety Climate: employees’ shared perceptions of the importance of safety in the workplace -

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A company that has a strong safety climate is likely to enable and support initiatives relating to health and safety training These organizations will invest the necessary money and time to make the training program a success, and employees are likely to be responsive to the effort A company with a does NOT have a strong safety climate may be hesitant to provide the support necessary to make health and safety training a successful endeavour Employees of such an organization may be suspicious of the training program, wondering why the company suddenly seems concerned about their health and well-being

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Job Task Analysis The second step is to conduct a job/task analysis

Job/Task Analysis: a component of the training needs analysis process during which the jobs and specific job tasks that are in need of training are identified and studied -

Steps for Conducting a Job/Task Analysis: o 1) Identify the job to analyze o 2) Obtain detailed job description that outlines tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the person performing the job o 3) Rate tasks for importance and frequency o 4) Survey incumbents and subject matter experts to know the risks involved in each task and their perceived competence to perform those tasks in a safe matter

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Person Analysis

Finally, the assessment needs to investigate the training needs of individual employees Individual employees’ behaviour is considered to see whether performance meets desired standards The ultimate goal of the person analysis is to determine who needs training

Person Analysis: a component of the training needs analysis process during which individual employees’ behaviour is studied to identify gaps in performance -

This can be done by comparing a person’s current performance with a desired standard or level of performance Employees included in the person analysis may be chosen randomly The method of assessment must be identified The data acquired at this stage will inform the next steps in developing a training program The type of training offered will depend on the nature of the problem

 Training Design and Delivery -

Following the needs analysis, an informed decision can be made about the potential effectiveness of training as an option for addressing OH&S concerns The decisions involve translating what was learned from the needs assessment into the actual training initiative Some of the pertinent decisions include the following: o 1. What are the objectives for training? o 2. Will the training program be designed or purchased? o 3. What is the appropriate content for the training? o 4. Who will receive the training? o 5. Who will deliver the training? o 6. Where will the training take place

Training Objectives: statements regarding the knowledge, skills, and behavioural changes that trainees should acquire in the training program Train the Trainer: programs designed to offer subject matter experts in various content areas skills in program delivery and communication

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(I) -

Training Delivery Methods: o (i) On-the-Job Training o (ii) Off-the-Job Training o (iii) Technology-Based Training On-the-Job Training On-the-job training methods include: o Job Instruction o Performance Aid o Job Rotation o Apprenticeships o Coaching o Mentoring

Job Instruction: a structured approach to training job skills that involves a trainer developing a training plan and demonstrating tasks to a trainee, which the trainee then performs with the trainer’s guidance and receives feedback on Performance Aid: devices such as visual aids are used to help trainees perform tasks Job Rotation: trainees learn various tasks by completing different jobs/tasks within the organization Apprenticeships: trainees receive on-the-job experience combined with classroom instruction Coaching: an experienced employee works closely with a new employee to help develop skills and provide feedback Mentoring: a senior employee is personally interested in helping a junior employee’s development (II) -

Off-the-Job Training Off-the-job training methods include: o Lecture o Discussion o Audio-Visual Methods o Case Incident or Study o Behaviour Modelling o Role Play o Games o Simulations

Lecture: the trainer presents the content orally to the trainees Discussion: the trainer and trainees have a verbal exchange about the material Audio-Visual Methods: media are used to illustrate points and ideas Case Incident or Study: trainees analyze a real life problem or situation Behaviour Modelling: trainees attempt to imitate the actions of a model who is performing a task

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Role Play: trainees practise skills within the training environment Games: competition-based activities are employed to help develop skills Simulations: trainees engage in physical or social events that are designed to recreate real situations o These may involve technology in terms of simulation devices or equipment (III) -

Technology-Based Training

Technology-based training methods include: o Web-Based o Video/Television o CD/DVD o Teleconference

Web-Based: trainees engage in training materials that are provided via the internet Video/Television: trainees watch video-based or televised material relevant to the topic on which they are being trained CD/DVD: training materials are provided to trainees via a CD or DVD Teleconference: trainees at various locations take part in audio or audio-visual exchange of information with a trainer using technology such as conference calls or Skype -----------------------------------------------------

How to Select a Good Training Provider: qualities that organizations will want to ensure their training provider possess o Knowledge of training models o Experience in training o OH&S expertise and experience o Industry experience o Willingness to customize the training to meet organizational needs o Good references

Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS): a legislated training program in the handling of potentially hazardous chemicals in the workplace that ensures Canadian workers recognize hazardous materials and are knowledgeable in emergency procedures following a chemical spill  Learning Theory and Training Delivery -

Training in OH&S can be associated with positive outcomes (e.g., safe worker behaviour and reduction in safety incidents) However, training experts sometimes point out that potential contributions from general theories of learning are NOT reflected in OH&S training programs Thus, the training programs may NOT be maximally effective The ultimate goal of OH&S training programs is that the knowledge and skills gained in the training environment can be transferred effectively to the workplace

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Principles determined from extensive psychological research on learning can help create such a training environment Three major approaches to the study of learning are: o (i) Behaviourist Perspective o (ii) Social Leaning o (iii) Experiential Learning

Behaviourist Perspective

Behaviourist Perspective: characterizes learning in terms of observable stimuli and responses, without reference to any activity that occurs inside the individual -

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Learning results when a person associates particular behaviours with certain immediate consequences or rewards This notion applies to the training context o The experience gained during training should influence later job performance Training can increase the performance of desired behaviours by following those actions with rewards OH&S should target specific actions Several basic learning principles may be effective in helping increase the transfer of knowledge, skills, and abilities acquired during training to the jobsite These include using: o Identical Elements  Such that the stimuli in the training environment are identical to those in the transfer environment  Example: in a safety training program on the proper use of protective equipment, the very same brand and type of safety gear used at the jobsite should also be used in the training program o General Principles  Transfer of training may be improved by teaching applicable skills and general principles that underlie the training content  Example: a training program on the safety operation of a piece of heavy equipment should also stress underlying principles regarding the widespread importance of safe behaviour in the workplace and the basic workings of the machinery itself o Stimulus Variability  Necessary to promote transfer of training to the worksite  Example: in an emergency preparedness training program the trainers should provide examples from several types of emergency scenarios Social Learning

Social Learning Theory: reflects a cognitive approach to learning -

People learn by observing others Observing others can help us learn various motor skills or style sof behaving o Example: observing more experienced people can help a new employee learn how to use safety equipment at work

Model the people observed during social learning are called this term

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The influential proponent of the social learning approach is Canadian Albert Dandura, who proposed that four mental processes facilitate social learning: o 1) Attention  Learners must notice the behavioural models and find them interesting  Example: new employees who are looking for models will likely look to experienced employees who attract their attention and seem willing to help o 2) Memory  Learners must remember what they have observed  New employees who are observing senior employees operate a particular piece of machinery must remember all the actions taken by the senior employees as they complete the task o 3) Motor Control  Learners must use their observations to guide their own actions  Example: if new employees are modelling a work task that involves heavy lifting, they must be capable of lifting that weight o 4) Motivation  The learners must have some reason to perform the modelled actions  Example: OH&S trainees must be motivated to perform the job in a safe manner

(III)

Experiential Learning

Experiential Learning: a process aimed at developing knowledge and skills -

Learning is maximized when: o (a) Knowledge is acquired via direct participation o (b) New insights are applied to realistic situations o (c) Trainees reflect on prior and new experiences

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This type of learning can be accomplished by numerous methods: o Problem-based learning o Role playing o Simulations

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From a OH&S perspective, experiential learning approaches means that trainees should engage in active learning environments that incorporate the training content into their experiences Trainees sho...


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